Piling rigs are machines used for construction that are meant for piling in or making piles in foundation engineering. (They help provide support for the foundation of buildings and other large structures).
Piling is, therefore, the process of making or drilling poles.
Piling rigs are mainly used to drill in silty clay, sandy soil, clay, etc.
In addition, it is vastly used in diaphragm walls, foundation projects, foundation reinforcement, and other cast-in-place piles. A piling rig has a rated engine power of the range 108 – 450kW, torque output of the range 60 – 400kN.m, with maximum pile diameter of between 1.5 – 4m, and a maximum of 60 – 90m pile depth.
These features make it possible to meet the construction requirements of the varies foundation engineering projects.
The various piling rigs generally use telescopic drill pipe, depth indicator, automated mast lift – box type, auto vertical adjustor, hydraulic crawler chassis, and even in load sensor, hydraulic pilot control, thereby making it easy to control.
The rig can also be applied in piling construction in wet soil – rotary bucket, rock – core drill, and dry – short screw by using a drilling tool that can also be equipped with the long screw drill, which is powered by the diesel engine excavator.
Pile drivers are devices formulated to drive poles or piles into the soil to give foundation support for both buildings and other structures. The term pile driver is also used to refer to the crew (construction members) or the persons working with or operating the pile-driving rigs. Some pile drivers use the weight placed within guides so that it slides vertically. It is then placed above the pole or pile. The weight is uplifted by the use of steam, diesel, hydraulics, or even manual labor. When the weight is at its maximum, it is then released, thereby hitting the pile, which drives it into the ground.
Pilings rigs have been categorised into the following three sizes:
Small size, torque ranges 60 – 100kNm, with 108kW engine power, a drilling diameter of 0.5 – 1.2m, 40m drilling depth, and a total quantity of 40t.
Medium size, torque ranges 120 – 180kNm, with engine power between 125 – 200kW, a drilling diameter of 0.8 – 1.8m, 60m drilling depth, and a total quantity of range 42 – 65t.
Large size, torque is 240kNm, with 300kW engine power, a drilling diameter of 1 – 2.5m, 80m drilling depth, and a total quantity of 100t.
Types of pile drivers
This is a two-stroke large diesel engine. Pile driving is initiated by lifting the weight that would draw air to the cylinder.
This may be used instead of the air and diesel hammers to drive steel pipe, timber piles, and precast concrete. Hydraulic hammers are considered more environmentally friendly because they produce less pollutants and noise.
This installs piles by the use of hydraulic rams that press the piles directly into the ground. This is more useful where vibration is a concern.
Vibratory pile extractor/driver
This contains a counter rotating system eccentric weights that is powered by the hydraulic motors, thus designed to cancel out the horizontal vibrations while transmitting the vertical vibrations into the pile.
As much as various forms of offshore pile driving are used and are beneficial to construction projects, they may cause harm to the nearby sea creatures like fish because of the high underwater sound pressure.